Directorate of Soil & Water Conservation, Kohima.
Welcome to the Department of Soil & Water Conservation, Nagaland. The Department was created with a view to tackle various Soil & Water conservation problems and specially to draw up scheme for weaning away the people from jhum cultivation which is widely practiced in Nagaland and replace by permanent form of cultivation. 94% of the total area of Nagaland is hilly terrain with heavy annual rainfall ranging from 120cm to 240cm. The economy of the people is fully dependent on Agriculture but due to misuse of land, the fertility of soil and its resultant Agriculture produce are alarmingly reduced. Some of the major factors of land degradation in the State is the practice of shifting cultivation and logging. In order to tackle such problems, the department of Soil & Water Conservation imparts Soil & Water Conservation oriented land use technology in order to enhance their production and maintain ecological balance.
The Department of Soil & Water Conservation came into being in the last year of the 3rd Plan, no field work was attempted due to non provision of fund. In the 1st Year of the 4th Plan, all our efforts were directed towards recruitment of staff and purchase of necessary equipments etc. and no concrete field work could be taken up except general survey of certain projects, due to paucity of men and materials. However with the help of the existing Technical Officers and available materials, various field works have since been initiated in the selected Watershed Projects / Centre's throughout the State. The first Director was Joshua Kire.
As proposed in the 4th Plan, 3 (three) Watershed Pilot Projects have been demarcated i. e., at Zubza in Kohima District, at Tuli in Mokokchung District and at Chare in Tuensang District by the end of 1972-73, where field works on various aspects of Soil Conservation viz., terracing, Contour bunding, Afforestation, Orchard Plantation and construction of irrigation channels are in full swing in all the above Projects.
The Department has prepared comprehensive longterm programme to be implemented in a phased manner. Based on Soil and Land classification valley and gentle slopes are being brought under terrace cultivation and the area which are not suitable for the terraced cultivation are recommended for horticultural and other economic plantation. Apart from this, measures are being taken up towards Protection of the already developed fields from damage of land slides, etc.
For any land based development planning, it is necessary to classify soil resources scientifically by a systematic survey. In fact Soil Survey is the starting point for all the Soil Research and long term Land Use Planning.
To classify soils into uniform families systematically with uniform nomenclature so that they can be correlated with those in other areas, regions and countries Soil survey adopt the Internationally Common Soil Survey Manual of United States Department of Agriculture. For this purposes soil sample testing results, field studies and observation of soil inherent characteristics can evolves the nomenclature of the soil family and is done only by the experience trained personnel.
The soils of Nagaland belongs to 4 orders, 7 sub-orders, 10 great groups, 14 sub groups and 72 soil families. The 4 orders found in Nagaland are
(iii) Inceptisols and
Inceptisols dominate the soils of the State with 66% followed by Ultisols 23.8%, Entisols 7.3% and Alfisols 2.9% of the total 16.6 million Ha. of the State Geographical Area
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